The arrival of African American GIs liberating concentration camps and restoring towns and villages across western Germany and Austria shifted white-black relations in Central Europe. Although applauded and venerated by some, they were also feared and loathed by others. The wives, girlfriends, and lovers of African American soldiers experienced social shaming and stunning, especially if the result of their relations ended in the birth of a child. Trying to decide what to do with these “occupation babies,” many German officials encouraged adoption or for the children to be placed in orphanages and children’s homes.

In communist East Germany, the state established a message of solidarity with the continents of Africa and Asia and with the plight of African Americans in the United States who were part of the Civil Rights movements. The experiences on the ground of Black people in East Germany, however, often contradicted the East German State’s own message of socialist solidarity and racial equality.

Beginning in the 1980s, with the encouragement of Black feminist Audre Lorde, the children of this generation of “occupation babies” established the Afro-German movement that is still with us today. Through the foundation of organizations such as ADEFRA and ISD, Afro-Germans began to collectivize in great numbers to articulate their positions as Black Germans.

Children of the occupation in West Germany

  • White Paper Three Little Negroes (1951) [English] [German]
  • White Paper Academic Success of “Negermischlinge” (1956) [English] [German]

African Americans in West Germany

Solidarity of the peoples in East Germany

Creating Black spaces and communities

  • White Paper The Pinguin Bar, Berlin (1949) [English] [German]

German views of the American Civil Rights struggle

Cultural representations

  • Photo white with black 1 Berlin-Harlem (1974)

Everyday racism

  • White Paper Defining blackness (1980)
  • White Paper May Ayim, “afro-german I” (1985)

Commemorating and forgetting

Arts and culture

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